All sections of Indians gradually lost their faith in the British sense of justice.
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Moreover, India suffered from a severe famine in And then, the plague broke out in Bombay Presidency. The steps taken by the government to provide relief was inadequate and could not satisfy the people. Out of the economic discontent, militant nationalism emerged in India. Certain international events of that time had great bearing on the growth of extremism.
The defeat of Italy by Abyssinia in , defeat of Russia by Japan in , the course of national movements in Egypt, Persia and Turkey, demand of Ireland for self-government etc.
All these international factors and forces encouraged extremism in India. The policies of different British Viceroys, particularly of Lord Curzon created widespread discontent among the Indians. He tried to attack the university autonomy with his Indian Universities Act. He also destroyed the system of local self government by passing the Calcutta Corporation Act and attempted to divide Hindu and Muslim by the partition of Bengal.
Though the government tried to justify its decision of partition on the ground of administrative convenience, yet the real aim was how to weaken the growing Indian nationalism. At that time Bengal had become the central point of Indian nationalism.
So the partition seriously provoked the sentiments of the people and protest movements were organised throughout India. This movement ultimately resulted in the Swadeshi Movement, boycott of foreign goods and in the scheme of national education which awakened the political consciousness of the people at large. The extremist phase of the liberation movement was provided with the philosophy of Aurobindo Ghosh and guidance of the trio-Lai, Bal and Pal, viz. All these Congressmen though differed from the political ideology of the moderates, yet instead of leaving the Congress they preferred to capture it from within.
All these leaders added religious dedication to the struggle for political independence. They did not have faith in passing resolutions, sending delegates or submitting petitions. They never preached violence against the government, rather suggested to withdraw the co-operation of the people from the government. The techniques which were evolved by the Indians during the anti-partition of Bengal agitation, continued as the primary techniques of the extremists. The differences between the moderates and extremists finally resulted in the split of the Congress at Surat in The extremists made a solid contribution to the national movement.
People were made prepared to make sacrifices for the sake of their motherland. Their programme of national education aimed at the cultural regeneration in India. All these proved beneficial in the long run. Even Gandhiji adopted the techniques of the extremists later on. While previously, Indian nationalism was confined to the limited educated class, the extremists had brought it nearer to the middle and lower middle class. Some good results also came out of extremism. The partition of Bengal was annulled in The extremists had generated a sense of self-sacrifice in the mind of Indians.
Modern India, 1885 1947
They had compelled the British Government to provide certain constitutional privileges to Indians from time to time. Their suggestions were adopted by the British Government which resulted in the passing of the Indian Council Act of But the constitutional reforms suggested in the Act failed to satisfy my body.
However, the moderates opted to co-operate with the execution of the Act. Several scholars expressed the view that the extremists involved religion in politics and advocated the militancy of Hinduism. It caused communalism in Indian politics later on. With a revival of Hinduism they also distanced the Muslim masses from the national movement and caused the formation of the Muslim League in A valuable resource on a struggle that is still far from complete. Apr 18, Divyanshu Jha rated it it was amazing Shelves: discovery-of-india. If you have read Bipan Chandra's book on the independence struggle, this book will give you a more holistic perspective with a bottoms up view of the movement- its local variations, phases and involvement of various sections - also its less Congress centric, and much more avowedly leftist, with in my opinion a little bit of an obsession about the bourgeoisie and the working class divide.
Reading in conjunction with Bipan Chandra;s "Struggle for Independence" recommended.
Oct 04, AskHistorians added it Shelves: colonial-history , indian-history , modern-era , revolutions-and-uprisings , british-history. A comprehensive account of the modern Indian colonial period from the late 19th century until independence. Sarkar manages to weld the more nationalist-oriented historiography with an array of sources that highlight the popular, everyday nature of the anti-colonial struggle. A very good primer into the colonial history of the Indian subcontinent.
Sep 14, Ajay Nawal rated it it was amazing Shelves: indian-history. Unlike Bipin Chandra book of India's struggle for freedom which is popular among UPSC aspirants, this book provide a holistic perspective by analysing history from bottoms to top.
Catalog Record: The coming struggle for India, being an | HathiTrust Digital Library
Contrary to Nationalist historian who have written modern Indian history by praising all its leaders, mass movements without critically analysing them, this book really do justice in observing different event, movement, changes, leaders. While great leaders do play important role in a history of a nation, Unlike Bipin Chandra book of India's struggle for freedom which is popular among UPSC aspirants, this book provide a holistic perspective by analysing history from bottoms to top.
While great leaders do play important role in a history of a nation, socio-political awakening along with overall mindset of people and their movement defines the history. Because of authors leftist political orientation, he has emphasised on role of CPI, Socialists, workers, peasants strikes etc. Ending lines of the book, I will say is brilliant " pondered how men fight and lose the battle, and the thing that they fought for comes about in spite of their defeat, and when it comes turns out not to be what they meant, and other men have to fight for what they meant under another name". May 30, Santosh Kashyap rated it really liked it.
One of the detailed, well researched and a very well written book on Indian Freedom struggle. The book throws light on the changing political economic and social condition of Indian people during the period. Unlike other authors on Indian Freedom movement he has chosen the year of When Indian national Congress was formed to begin his intriguing tale of the turmoiling Indian masses fighting for their freedom which would end into a bloody massacre more-soever when they have been destined to One of the detailed, well researched and a very well written book on Indian Freedom struggle.
Unlike other authors on Indian Freedom movement he has chosen the year of When Indian national Congress was formed to begin his intriguing tale of the turmoiling Indian masses fighting for their freedom which would end into a bloody massacre more-soever when they have been destined to celebrate their freedom.
The language is standard and formal. Sentences are usually large. Sarkar's style of using quotes in his sentences to bring about effect is remarkable.
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A must read for every Indian and anyone who has interest in Modern Indian History. View 1 comment. Aug 17, Aratrika rated it it was amazing. Mar 14, Selva Rama added it. This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers. To view it, click here. Aug 13, Hrishikesh rated it really liked it. Read parts of it before; now read it end-to-end. Very interesting read, but far too obsessed with class conflict. Feb 25, Mohamed added it. Sanjukta rated it really liked it Jun 12, Harsh rated it it was amazing Mar 02, Pramod rated it really liked it Aug 13, Snehal rated it it was amazing Mar 02, Practically all the Hindu delegates were Brahmans.
All of them spoke English.
More than half were lawyers, and the remainder consisted of journalists, businessmen, landowners, and professors. Such was the first gathering of the new India, an emerging elite of middle-class intellectuals devoted to peaceful political action and protest on behalf of their nation in the making. On its last day, the Congress passed resolutions, embodying the political and economic demands of its members, that served thereafter as public petitions to government for the redress of grievances.